十一月 13th, 2019  |  最靠谱的网赌平台


  Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)

  Section A

  Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks。
You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of
choices given in a word bank following the passage。 Read the passage
through carefully before making your choices。 Each choice in the bank
is identified by a letter。 Please mark the corresponding letter for
each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre。 You
may not use any of the words in the bank more than once。

  Did Sarah Josepha Hale write “Mary’s Little Lamb,” the eternal
nursery rhyme (儿歌) about girl named Mary with a stubborn lamb? This
is still disputed, but it’s clear that the woman 26 for writing it was
one of America’s most fascinating 27 。 In honor of the poem publication
on May 24,1830, here’s more about the 28 author’s life。

  Hale wasn’t just a writer, she was also a 29 social advocate, and
she was particularly 30 with an ideal New England, which she associated
with abundant Thanksgiving meals that she claimed had “a deep moral
influence,” she began a nationwide 31 to have a national holiday
declared that would bring families together while celebrating the 32
festivals。 In 1863, after 17 years of advocacy including letters to
five presidents, Hale got it。 President Abraham Lincoln during the
Civil War, issued a __33__ setting aside the last Thursday in
November for the holiday。

  The true authorship of “Mary’s Little Lamb” is disputed。 According
to New England Historical Society, Hale wrote only one part of the
poem, but claimed authorship。 Regardless of the author, it seems that
the poem was __34__by a real event。 When young Mary Sawyer was
followed to school by a lamb in 1816, it caused some problems。 A
bystander named John Roulstone wrote a poem about the event, then, at
some point, Hale herself seems to have helped write it。 However, if a
1916 piece by her great-niece is to be trusted, Hale claimed for the
__35__of her life that “Some other people pretended that someone
else wrote the poem”。

  A) campaign I) proclamation

  B) career J) rectified

  C) characters K) reputed

  D) features L) rest

  E) fierce M) supposed

  F) inspired N) traditional

  G) latter O) versatile

  H) obsessed

  Section B

  Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with
ten statements attached to it。 Each statement contains information
given in one of the paragraphs。 Identify the paragraph from which the
information is derived。 You may choose a paragraph more than once。
Each paragraph is marked with a letter。 Answer the question by marking
the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2。

  Peer Pressure Has a Positive Side

  A。 Parents of teenagers often view their children‘s friends with
something like suspicion。 They worry that the adolescent peer group has
the power to push its members into behavior that is foolish and even
dangerous。 Such wariness is well founded: statistics show, for
example, that a teenage driver with a same-age passenger in the car is
at higher risk of a fatal crash than an adolescent driving alone or with
an adult。

  B。 In a 2005 study, psychologist Laurence Steinberg of Temple
University and his co-author, psychologist Margo Gardner, then at
Temple, divided 306 people into three age groups: young adolescents,
with a mean age of 14; older adolescents, with a mean age of 19; and
adults, aged 24 and older。 Subjects played a computerized driving game
in which the player must avoid crashing into a wall that materializes,
without warning, on the roadway。 Steinberg and Gardner randomly
assigned some participants to play alone or with two same-age peers
looking on。

  C。 Older adolescents scored about 50 percent higher on an index of
risky driving when their peers were in the room—and the driving of early
adolescents was fully twice as reckless when other young teens were
around。 In contrast, adults behaved in similar ways regardless of
whether they were on their own or observed by others。 “The presence of
peers makes adolescents and youth, but not adults, more likely to take
risks,” Steinberg and Gardner concluded。

  D。 Yet in the years following the publication of this study,
Steinberg began to believe that this interpretation did not capture the
whole picture。 As he and other researchers examined the question of why
teens were more apt to take risks in the company of other teenagers,
they came to suspect that a crowd‘s influence need not always be
negative。 Now some experts are proposing that we should take advantage
of the teen brain’s keen sensitivity to the presence of friends and
leverage it to improve education。

  E。 In a 2011 study, Steinberg and his colleagues turned to
functional MRI (磁共振) to investigate how the presence of peers
affects the activity in the adolescent brain。 They scanned the brains
of 40 teens and adults who were playing a virtual driving game designed
to test whether players would brake at a yellow light or speed on
through the crossroad。

  F。 The brains of teenagers, but not adults, showed greater
activity in two regions associated with rewards when they were being
observed by same-age peers than when alone。 In other words, rewards
are more intense for teens when they are with peers, which motivates
them to pursue higher-risk experiences that might bring a big payoff
(such as the thrill of just making the light before it turns red)。
But Steinberg suspected this tendency could also have its advantages。
In his latest experiment, published online in August, Steinberg and
his colleagues used a computerized version of a card game called the
Iowa Gambling Task to investigate how the presence of peers affects the
way young people gather and apply information。

  G。 The results: Teens who played the Iowa Gambling Task under the
eyes of fellow adolescents engaged in more exploratory behavior,
learned faster from both positive and negative outcomes, and achieved
better performance on the task than those who played in solitude。 “What
our study suggests is that teenagers learn more quickly and more
effectively when their peers are present than when they‘re on their
own,” Steinberg says。 And this finding could have important
implications for how we think about educating adolescents。

  H。 Matthew D。 Lieberman, a social cognitive neuroscientist at the
University of California, Los Angeles, and author of the 2013 book
Social: Why Our Brains Are Wired to Connect, suspects that the human
brain is especially adept at learning socially salient information。 He
points to a classic 2004 study in which psychologists at Dartmouth
College and Harvard University used functional MRI to track brain
activity in 17 young men as they listened to descriptions of people
while concentrating on either socially relevant cues (for example,
trying to form an impression of a person based on the description) or
more socially neutral information (such as noting the order of details
in the description)。 The descriptions were the same in each
condition, but people could better remember these statements when given
a social motivation。

  I。 The study also found that when subjects thought about and later
recalled descriptions in terms of their informational content, regions
associated with factual memory, such as the medial temporal lobe,
became active。 But thinking about or remembering descriptions in terms
of their social meaning activated the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex—part
of the brain‘s social network—even as traditional memory regions
registered low levels of activity。 More recently, as he reported in a
2012 review, Lieberman has discovered that this region may be part of a
distinct network involved in socially motivated learning and memory。
Such findings, he says, suggest that “this network can be called on to
process and store the kind of information taught in school—potentially
giving students access to a range of untapped mental powers。”

  J。 If humans are generally geared to recall details about one
another, this pattern is probably even more powerful among teenagers
who are hyperattentive to social minutiae: who is in, who is out, who
likes whom, who is mad at whom。 Their penchant for social drama is
not—or not only—a way of distracting themselves from their schoolwork or
of driving adults crazy。 It is actually a neurological(神经的)
sensitivity, initiated by hormonal changes。 Evolutionarily speaking,
people in this age group are at a stage in which they can prepare to
find a mate and start their own family while separating from parents and
striking out on their own。 To do this successfully, their brain
prompts them to think and even obsess about others。

  K。 Yet our schools focus primarily on students as individual
entities。 What would happen if educators instead took advantage of the
fact that teens are powerfully compelled to think in social terms? In
Social, Lieberman lays out a number of ways to do so。 History and
English could be presented through the lens of the psychological drives
of the people involved。 One could therefore present Napoleon in terms
of his desire to impress or Churchill in terms of his lonely
melancholy。 Less inherently interpersonal subjects, such as math,
could acquire a social aspect through team problem solving and peer
tutoring。 Research shows that when we absorb information in order to
teach it to someone else, we learn it more accurately and deeply,
perhaps in part because we are engaging our social cognition。

  L。 And although anxious parents may not welcome the notion,
educators could turn adolescent recklessness to academic ends。 “Risk
taking in an educational context is a vital skill that enables progress
and creativity,” wrote Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, a cognitive
neuroscientist at University College London, in a review published last
year。 Yet, she noted, many young people are especially risk averse at
school—afraid that one low test score or mediocre grade could cost them
a spot at a selective university。 We should assure such students that
risk, and even peer pressure, can be a good thing—as long as it
happens in the classroom and not the car。

  36。 It is thought probable that the human brain is particularly
good at picking-up socially important information。

  37。 It can be concluded from experiment that the presence of peers
increases risk-taking by adolescents and youth。

  38。 Students should be told that risk XXX classroom can be
something positive。

  39。 The XXX a mate and getting married accounts for adolescents’
greater attention to social interactions。

  40。 According to Steinberg, the presence of peers increases the
speed and effectiveness of teenagers’ leaning。

  41。 Teenagers’ parents are often concerned XXX negative peer

  42。 Activating the XXX network involved in socially motivated
learning and memory may XXX tap XXX mental powers。

  43。 The presence of peer intensifies the feeling of rewards in
teens’ brains。

  44。 When we absorb information for the purpose of imparting it to
ethers, we do so with greater secretary and depth。

  45。 Some experts are suggesting that we turn peer influence to good
use in education。

  Section C

  Direction: There are 2 passages in this section。 Each passage is
followed by some questions or unfinished statement。 For each of them
there are four choice and our marked A),B),C) and D)。You should
decide on the best choice and nark the corresponding letter on Answer
sheet2 with a single line through the centre。

  Passage One

  Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage。

  The Ebro Delta, in Spain, famous as a battleground during the
Spanish Civil War, is now the setting for a different contest, one
that is pitting rice farmers against two enemies: the rice-eating giant
apple snail, and rising sea levels。 What happens here will have a
bearing on the future of European rice production and the overall health
of southern European wetlands。

  Located on the Mediterranean just two hours south of Barcelona, the
Ebro Delta produces 120 million kilograms of rice a year, making it one
of the continent’s most important rice-growing areas。 As the sea creeps
into these freshwater marshes, however, rising salinity (盐分) is
hampering rice production。 At the same time, this sea-water also kills
off the greedy giant apple snail, an introduced pest that feeds on
young rice plants。 The most promising strategy has become to harness
one foe against the other。

  The battle is currently being waged on land, in greenhouses at the
University of Barcelona。 Scientists working under the banner “Project
Neurice” are seeking varieties of rice that can withstand the increasing
salinity without losing the absorbency that makes European rice ideal
for traditional Spanish and Italian dishes。

  “The project has two sides,” says Xavier Serrat, Neurice project
manager and researcher at the University of Barcelona。 “The short-term
fight against the snail, and a mid- to long-term fight against climate
change。 But the snail has given the project greater urgency。”

  Originally from South America, the snails were accidentally
introduced into the Ebro Delta by Global Aquatic Tecnologies, a company
that raised the snails for fresh-water aquariums (水族馆), but failed
to prevent their escape。 For now, the giant apple snail’s foothold in
Europe is limited to the Ebro Delta。 But the snail continues its march
to new territory, says Serrat。 “The question is not if it will reach
other rice-growing areas of Europe, but when。”

  Over the next year and a half investigators will test the various
strains of saline-tolerant rice they’ve concocted。 In 2018, farmers
will plant the varieties with the most promise in the Ebro Delta and
Europe’s other two main rice-growing regions—along the Po in Italy, and
France’s Rhône。 A season in the field will help determine which, if
any, of the varieties are ready for commercialization。

  As an EU-funded effort, the search for salt-tolerant varieties of
rice is taking place in all three countries。 Each team is crossbreeding
a local European short-grain rice with a long-grain Asian variety that
carries the salt-resistant gene。 The scientists are breeding successive
generations to arrive at varieties that incorporate salt tolerance but
retain about 97 percent of the European rice genome (基因组)。

  46。 Why does the author mention the Spanish Civil War at the
beginning of the passage?

  A) It had great impact on the life of Spanish rice farmers。

  B) It is of great significance in the records of Spanish history。

  C) Rice farmers in the Ebro Delta are waging a battle of similar

  D) Rice farmers in the Ebro Delta are XXX as hard a time as in the

  47。 What may be XXX for rice farmers to employ in flghting their

  A) XXX enemy first。 B) Eliminating the enemy one by one。

  C) Killing two bird with one stone。 D) Using one evil to combat
the other。

  48。 What do we learn about “Project Neurice”?

  A) Its goals will have to be realized at a cost。

  B) It aims to increase the yield of Spanish rice。

  C) Its immediate priority is to bring the pest under control。

  D) It tries to kill the snails with the help of climate change。

  49。 What does Neurice project manager say about the giant apple

  A) It can survive only on southern European wetlands。

  B) It will invade other rice-growing regions of Europe。

  C) It multiplies at a speed beyond human imagination。

  D) It was introduced into the rice fields on purpose。



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